Although a bad reputation should be avoided, it is sometimes necessary to have one. He does not command the loyalty of the armies and officials that maintain his authority, and these can be withdrawn from him at a whim. IBS.it, da 21 anni la tua libreria online Machiavelli compares two great military leaders: Hannibal and Scipio Africanus. More importantly, and less traditionally, he distinguishes new princedoms from hereditary established princedoms. Edizione del cinquecentennale è un eBook di Machiavelli, Niccolò pubblicato da Donzelli a 20.99. He declared himself ruler with no opposition. Machiavelli goes on to say that a prince who obtains power through the support of the nobles has a harder time staying in power than someone who is chosen by the common people; since the former finds himself surrounded by people who consider themselves his equals. Machiavelli discusses the recent history of the Church as if it were a princedom that was in competition to conquer Italy against other princes. Il Principe e i Discorsi Nell’elaborare il suo pensiero politico, Machiavelli pose alla base la riflessione sugli «esempli» offerti dalla storia passata e presente, guardando in particolare, secondo il modulo umanistico, al mondo Il Principe di Machiavelli, riassunto capitoli Letteratura italiana - Il Cinquecento — Il Principe è un trattato di dottrina politica di Niccolò Machiavelli. Allan Gilbert wrote: "In wishing new laws and yet seeing danger in them Machiavelli was not himself an innovator,"[21] because this idea was traditional and could be found in Aristotle's writings. [61], 20th-century Italian-American mobsters were influenced by The Prince. Machiavelli gives three options: Machiavelli advises the ruler to go the first route, stating that if a prince doesn't destroy a city, he can expect "to be destroyed by it".[20]. Il principe. Machiavelli's offers two rulers to imitate, Agathocles of Syracuse, and Oliverotto Euffreducci. [24] In conclusion, the most important virtue is having the wisdom to discern what ventures will come with the most reward and then pursuing them courageously. [51] These authors criticized Machiavelli, but also followed him in many ways. [27] His justification is purely pragmatic; as he notes, "Men worry less about doing an injury to one who makes himself loved than to one who makes himself feared." Additionally, being overly generous is not economical, because eventually all resources will be exhausted. Acquistalo su libreriauniversitaria.it! [52], Modern materialist philosophy developed in the 16th, 17th and 18th century, starting in the generations after Machiavelli. Machiavelli, Principe del conflitto: analisi sulle moderne strumentalizzazioni del pensiero machiavelliano La trattazione è divisa in tre parti: dopo una breve biografia dell‟autore, necessaria per comprendere il contesto nel quale il suo pensiero si origina, il Capitolo I affronta il tema del conflitto, concetto fondante della riflessione machiavelliana. The Court of Rome sternly prohibited his book. Il file è in formato EPUB con DRM: risparmia online con le offerte IBS! The general theme of The Prince is of accepting that the aims of princes – such as glory and survival – can justify the use of immoral means to achieve those ends. They all showed a defect of arms (already discussed) and either had a hostile populace or did not know to secure themselves against the great. Machiavelli views injuring enemies as a necessity, stating that "if an injury is to be done to a man, it should be so severe that the prince is not in fear of revenge".[18]. Auxiliary forces are more dangerous than mercenary forces because they are united and controlled by capable leaders who may turn against the employer. Ultimately, the decision should be made by the prince and carried out absolutely. A prince truly earns honour by completing great feats. Thus, as long as the city is properly defended and has enough supplies, a wise prince can withstand any siege. They assign a leader who can be popular to the people while the great benefit, or a strong authority defending the people against the great. Normally, these types of works were addressed only to hereditary princes. Machiavelli also warns against using auxiliary forces, troops borrowed from an ally, because if they win, the employer is under their favor and if they lose, he is ruined. This section is one where Machiavelli's pragmatic ideal can be seen most clearly. Princes who rise to power through their own skill and resources (their "virtue") rather than luck tend to have a hard time rising to the top, but once they reach the top they are very secure in their position. As he also notes, the chapter in any case makes it clear that holding such a state is highly difficult for a prince. Machiavelli reasons that since princes come across men who are evil, he should learn how to be equally evil himself, and use this ability or not according to necessity. This results in higher taxes, and will bring grief upon the prince. Machiavelli makes an important distinction between two groups that are present in every city, and have very different appetites driving them: the "great" and the "people". to indulge the lesser powers of the area without increasing their power. Machiavelli writes, “thus, when fortune turns against him he will be prepared to resist it.”. Machiavelli's ideas on how to accrue honour and power as a leader had a profound impact on political leaders throughout the modern west, helped by the new technology of the printing press. Although Hannibal's army consisted of men of various races, they were never rebellious because they feared their leader. In Chapter 18, for example, he uses a metaphor of a lion and a fox, examples of force and cunning; according to Zerba (2004:217), "the Roman author from whom Machiavelli in all likelihood drew the simile of the lion and the fox" was Cicero. This, he says, does not require extreme virtue or fortune, only "fortunate astuteness". This categorization of regime types is also "un-Aristotelian"[13] and apparently simpler than the traditional one found for example in Aristotle's Politics, which divides regimes into those ruled by a single monarch, an oligarchy, or by the people, in a democracy. Ma nel Principato nuovo consistono le difficultà. Machiavelli generalizes that there were several virtuous Roman ways to hold a newly acquired province, using a republic as an example of how new princes can act: More generally, Machiavelli emphasizes that one should have regard not only for present problems but also for the future ones. He then explicitly proposes that the Medici are now in a position to try the same thing. Scipio's men, on the other hand, were known for their mutiny and dissension, due to Scipio's "excessive mercy" – which was, however, a source of glory because he lived in a republic. In this way, his subjects will slowly forget his cruel deeds and the prince can better align himself with his subjects. Machiavelli apparently seems to go back on his rule that a prince can evade hate, as he says that he will eventually be hated by someone, so he should seek to avoid being hated by the commonfolk. Using fortresses can be a good plan, but Machiavelli says he shall "blame anyone who, trusting in fortresses, thinks little of being hated by the people". In a well-known metaphor, Machiavelli writes that "it is better to be impetuous than cautious, because fortune is a woman; and it is necessary, if one wants to hold her down, to beat her and strike her down. The "great" wish to oppress and rule the "people", while the "people" wish not to be ruled or oppressed. [42] He encouraged ambition and risk taking. È lo stesso Machiavelli a dar conto della composizione dell'opera nella lettera a Francesco Vettori del 10 dic. In employing this metaphor, Machiavelli apparently references De Officiis by the Roman orator and statesman Cicero, and subverts its conclusion, arguing instead that dishonorable behavior is sometimes politically necessary.[29]. Concerning the behavior of a prince toward his subjects, Machiavelli announces that he will depart from what other writers say, and writes: .mw-parser-output .templatequote{overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px}.mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite{line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0}. King Ferdinand of Spain is cited by Machiavelli as an example of a monarch who gained esteem by showing his ability through great feats and who, in the name of religion, conquered many territories and kept his subjects occupied so that they had no chance to rebel. Machiavelli gives a negative example in Emperor Maximilian I; Maximilian, who was secretive, never consulted others, but once he ordered his plans and met dissent, he immediately changed them. [39], Machiavelli emphasized the need for looking at the "effectual truth" (verita effetuale), as opposed to relying on "imagined republics and principalities". However, during a siege a virtuous prince will keep the morale of his subjects high while removing all dissenters. Machiavelli divides the subject of new states into two types, "mixed" cases and purely new states. Then, if he decides to discontinue or limit his generosity, he will be labeled as a miser. Machiavelli prefaces his work with an introductory letter to Lorenzo de' Medici, Duke of Urbino, the recipient of his work. It can be summarized as follows:[9]. In the first sentence, Machiavelli uses the word "state" (Italian stato which could also mean "status") in order to cover, in neutral terms, "all forms of organization of supreme political power, whether republican or princely." He clearly felt Italy needed major reform in his time, and this opinion of his time is widely shared.[43]. Nel Principe vuole individuare le qualità che il principe deve avere per essere lodato e non disprezzato dai sudditi dato che il principe deve far tutto al fine di evitare il loro odio. Niccolò Machiavelli nuştekarê Qıckek (Il principe). For such a prince, "unless extraordinary vices cause him to be hated, it is reasonable to expect that his subjects will be naturally well disposed towards him". Finally, Machiavelli makes a point that bringing new benefits to a conquered people will not be enough to cancel the memory of old injuries, an idea Allan Gilbert said can be found in Tacitus and Seneca the Younger.[23]. [46] A copy was also possessed by the Catholic king and emperor Charles V.[47] In France, after an initially mixed reaction, Machiavelli came to be associated with Catherine de Medici and the St Bartholomew's Day Massacre. Niccolò Machiavelli - Il Principe (1513) Capitolo terzo Informazioni sulla fonte del testo Capitolo II Capitolo IV [p. 7 modifica] CAPITOLO III. He points to factionalism as a historical weak point in the Church, and points to the recent example of the Borgia family as a better strategy which almost worked. These were the English cardinal Reginald Pole and the Portuguese bishop Jerónimo Osório, both of whom lived for many years in Italy, and the Italian humanist and later bishop, Ambrogio Caterino Politi. It is also notable for being in direct conflict with the dominant Catholic and scholastic doctrines of the time, particularly those concerning politics and ethics.[6][7]. Severus outwitted and killed his military rivals, and although he oppressed the people, Machiavelli says that he kept the common people "satisfied and stupified". Fortune, Machiavelli argues, seems to strike at the places where no resistance is offered, as had recently been the case in Italy. Pubblicato da … The choice of his detestable hero, Cesare Borgia, clearly enough shows his hidden aim; and the contradiction between the teaching of the Prince and that of the Discourses on Livy and the History of Florence shows that this profound political thinker has so far been studied only by superficial or corrupt readers. L’opera più famosa di Machiavelli è senza dubbio ”Il Principe”, in cui analizza una serie di principati ed eserciti cercando di delineare le qualità idonee a un principe per conquistare uno stato, conservare il suo potere, ed ottenere rispetto dai sudditi. Inevitably, he will disappoint some of his followers. He claims that "being disarmed makes you despised." When it looked as though the king of France would abandon him, Borgia sought new alliances. According to Machiavelli, these are relatively easy to maintain, once founded. A prudent prince should have a select group of wise counselors to advise him truthfully on matters all the time. Descrizione Il principe, celebre trattato di dottrina politica scritto da Niccolò Machiavelli nel 1513, espone le caratteristiche dei principati e dei metodi per mantenerli e conquistarli. Having risen the easy way, it is not even certain such a prince has the skill and strength to stand on his own feet. Machiavelli then goes to his next example, Oliverotto de Fermo, an Italian condottiero who recently came to power by killing all his enemies, including his uncle Giovanni Fogliani, at a banquet. He justifies this by saying that men are wicked, and never keep their words, therefore the ruler doesn't have to keep his. One should not "enjoy the benefit of time" but rather the benefit of one's virtue and prudence, because time can bring evil as well as good. John Gotti and Roy DeMeo would regularly quote The Prince and consider it to be the Therefore, a prince must have the means to force his supporters to keep supporting him even when they start having second thoughts, otherwise he will lose his power. La fortuna un insieme di forza casuali e senza finalit (si pu notare a questo punto che Machiavelli non prende in considerazione Dio nel suo discorso, perch se esiste la fortuna non pu esistere la provvidenza). "Il principe" di Niccolò Machiavelli ha sostato a lungo sulle scrivanie, agli scrittoi, sui comodini accanto ai letti degli uomini che han fatto la Storia (o che hanno tentato di farla). The importance of Machiavelli's realism was noted by many important figures in this endeavor, for example Jean Bodin,[53] Francis Bacon,[54] Harrington, John Milton,[55] Spinoza,[56] Rousseau, Hume,[57] Edward Gibbon, and Adam Smith. Part of the reason is that people are naturally resistant to change and reform. Unlike Cicero's more widely accepted works however, according to Cox (1997:1122), "Ad Herennium ... offers a model of an ethical system that not only condones the practice of force and deception but appears to regard them as habitual and indeed germane to political activity". Managing major reforms can show off a Prince's virtue and give him glory. Gilbert (1938:34) notes that this chapter is quite atypical of any previous books for princes. A "civil principality" is one in which a citizen comes to power "not through crime or other intolerable violence", but by the support of his fellow citizens. That great men should develop and use their virtue and prudence was a traditional theme of advice to Christian princes. [38] Furthermore, Machiavelli "was too thoughtful not to know what he was doing and too generous not to admit it to his reasonable friends". [69][70], This interpretation was famously put forth by scholar Garrett Mattingly (1958), who stated that "In some ways, Machiavelli's little treatise was just like all the other "Mirrors of Princes", in other ways it was a diabolical burlesque of all of them, like a political Black Mass."[71]. This is not necessarily true in every case. Il capolavoro del Machiavelli è caratterizzato da un’alternanza di massime, argomentazioni ed esempi. A principality is put into place either by the "great" or the "people" when they have the opportunity to take power, but find resistance from the other side. Video appunto: Il Principe - Descrizione Il 10 Dicembre 1513 viene annunciata la terminazione del Principe, un opuscolo che descriveva principalmente un nuovo tipo di principe. The kind that understands what others can understand – which is good to have. Also, a prince may be perceived to be merciful, faithful, humane, frank, and religious, but most important is only to seem to have these qualities. He supports arming the people despite the fact that he knows the Florentines are decidedly pro-democratic and would oppose the prince. to install one's princedom in the new acquisition, or to install colonies of one's people there, which is better. While Bireley focuses on writers in the Catholic countries, Bacon wrote: "We are much beholden to Machiavelli and other writers of that class who openly and unfeignedly declare or describe what men do, and not what they ought to do. Machiavelli notes that a prince is praised for keeping his word. When the kingdom revolves around the king, with everyone else his servant, then it is difficult to enter but easy to hold. [75], Hans Baron is one of the few major commentators who argues that Machiavelli must have changed his mind dramatically in favour of free republics, after having written The Prince. Principele (în original în italiană: Il Príncipe) este cea mai cunoscută lucrare a lui Niccolò Machiavelli. This became the theme of much future political discourse in Europe during the 17th century. He states the difference between honorable behavior and criminal behavior by using the metaphor of animals, saying that "there are two ways of contending, one in accordance with the laws, the other by force; the first of which is proper to men, the second to beast". Even more unusual, rather than simply suggesting caution as a prudent way to try to avoid the worst of bad luck, Machiavelli holds that the greatest princes in history tend to be ones who take more risks, and rise to power through their own labour, virtue, prudence, and particularly by their ability to adapt to changing circumstances. [76], This article is about the book by Niccolò Machiavelli. Only armed prophets, like Moses, succeed in bringing lasting change. And in his The Social Contract, the French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau said: Machiavelli was a proper man and a good citizen; but, being attached to the court of the Medici, he could not help veiling his love of liberty in the midst of his country's oppression.